Royal Copenhagen began making porcelain and other ceramics in the late 18th Century under the patronage of the Danish Royal Family. The mark on items that people are most familiar with is the Crown with Royal Copenhagen written in a circle around.
This is not actually the most important mark for collectors it is the three wavy lines, at the insistence of the Monarch these lines were incorporated to show the importance of the three bodies of water they represent. They are important to Denmark and in turn to Copenhagen. These three bodies of Water are from west to east the Little Belt, Great Belt and Oresund. Oresund lies between Denmark and Sweden. (Link here to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Belt)
For Collectors of Vintage or Mid Century Modern (MCM) it is important to acknowledge that Royal Copenhagen was bought out by the Aluminia Company in the middle of the 19th Century. This is important because pieces that were produced at their original factory do not have the crown or Royal Copenhagen on them.
So let’s have a look at a variety of marks that appear on Vintage or Mid Century items
Picture 3 shows the mark on the base of a piece for the Baca range introduced in the early 1960s it is recognisable by the circle around the designers mark with lines radiating from it.
Picture 4 shows the marks on the base of a studio piece with the incised designers mark and a five-digit design number.
Picture 5 shows the mark for a piece made at the Aluminia factory, note the three wavy lines combined with a mark that looks like a bell but forms an A when combined with the lines.
Dating marks are contained within the factory mark. If we look at picture 3 above there is a line below the ** in Copenhagen this gives the year of production and generally, the same system is used on Studio pieces.
In Picture 5 we see the Aluminia mark with an X below ** again indicating the year of production. This Aluminia mark is only used up until 1969 when the dating system for all Royal Copenhagen pieces was changed from a single year of production to a 4 year period.
There are tables which contain dating information going back for decades which I will not reproduce here but can be found on the Royal Copenhagen website here
If you need any clarification or help I will do what I can please contact me at email@example.com